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Introduction to Magnetic Particle Inspection

Introduction
Introduction
Basic Principles
History of MPI

Physics
Magnetism
Magnetic
Mat'ls
Magnetic Domains
Magnetic Fields
Electromag. Fields
Field From a Coil
Mag Properties
Hysteresis Loop
Permeability
Field Orientation
Magnetization of Mat'ls
Magnetizing Current
Longitudinal Mag Fields
Circular Mag Fields
Demagnetization
Measuring Mag Fields

Equipment & Materials
Portable Equipment
Stationary Equipment
Multidirectional Equipment
Lights
Field Strength Indicators
Magnetic Particles
Suspension Liquids

Testing Practices
Dry Particles
Wet Suspension
Magnetic Rubber
Continuous & Residual Mag
Field Direction & Intensity
L/D Ratio

Process Control
Particle Concentration
Suspension Contamination
Electrical System
Lighting
Eye Considerations

Example Indications
Visible Dry Powder
Fluorescent Wet

Quizzes

Magnetic Field Produced by a Coil

When a current carrying conductor is formed into a loop or several loops to form a coil, a magnetic field develops that flows through the center of the loop or coil along its longitudinal axis and circles back around the outside of the loop or coil. The magnetic field circling each loop of wire combines with the fields from the other loops to produce a concentrated field down the center of the coil. A loosely wound coil is illustrated below to show the interaction of the magnetic field. The magnetic field is essentially uniform down the length of the coil when it is wound tighter.

The strength of a coil's magnetic field increases not only with increasing current but also with each loop that is added to the coil. A long, straight coil of wire is called a solenoid and can be used to generate a nearly uniform magnetic field similar to that of a bar magnet. The concentrated magnetic field inside a coil is very useful in magnetizing ferromagnetic materials for inspection using the magnetic particle testing method. Please be aware that the field outside the coil is weak and is not suitable for magnetizing ferromagnetic materials.