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Materials/Processes

Selection of Materials
Specific Metals
  Metal Ores
  Iron and Steel
  Decarburization
  Aluminum/Aluminum Alloys
  Nickel and Nickel Alloys
  Titanium and Titanium Alloys


General Manufacturing Processes

Metallic Components
Ceramic and Glass Components
Polymers/Plastic Components
Composites

Manufacturing Defects
Metals
Polymers
Composites

Service Induced Damage
Metals
Polymers
Composites
Material Specifications

Component Design, Performance and NDE
Strength
Durability
Fracture Mechanics
Nondestructive Evaluation

Creep and Stress Rupture Properties

Creep Properties
Creep is a time-dependent deformation of a material while under an applied load that is below its yield strength. It is most often occurs at elevated temperature, but some materials creep at room temperature. Creep terminates in rupture if steps are not taken to bring to a halt.

Creep data for general design use are usually obtained under conditions of constant uniaxial loading and constant temperature. Results of tests are usually plotted as strain versus time up to rupture. As indicated in the image, creep often takes place in three stages.  In the initial stage, strain occurs at a relatively rapid rate but the rate gradually decreases until it becomes approximately constant during the second stage. This constant creep rate is called the minimum creep rate or steady-state creep rate since it is the slowest creep rate during the test. In the third stage, the strain rate increases until failure occurs. 

Creep in service is usually affected by changing conditions of loading and temperature and the number of possible stress-temperature-time combinations is infinite.  While most materials are subject to creep, the creep mechanisms is often different between metals, plastics, rubber, concrete.

Stress Rupture Properties
Stress rupture testing is similar to creep testing except that the stresses are higher than those used in a creep testing.  Stress rupture tests are used to determine the time necessary to produce failure so stress rupture testing is always done until failure.  Data is plotted log-log as in the chart above.  A straight line or best fit curve is usually obtained at each temperature of interest.  This information can then be used to extrapolate time to failure for longer times. A typical set of stress rupture curves is shown below.