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Materials/Processes

Selection of Materials
Specific Metals
  Metal Ores
  Iron and Steel
  Decarburization
  Aluminum/Aluminum Alloys
  Nickel and Nickel Alloys
  Titanium and Titanium Alloys


General Manufacturing Processes

Metallic Components
Ceramic and Glass Components
Polymers/Plastic Components
Composites

Manufacturing Defects
Metals
Polymers
Composites

Service Induced Damage
Metals
Polymers
Composites
Material Specifications

Component Design, Performance and NDE
Strength
Durability
Fracture Mechanics
Nondestructive Evaluation

Anisotropy and Isotropy

In a single crystal, the physical and mechanical properties often differ with orientation. It can be seen from looking at our models of crystalline structure that atoms should be able to slip over one another or distort in relation to one another easier in some directions than others. When the properties of a material vary with different crystallographic orientations, the material is said to be anisotropic.

Alternately, when the properties of a material are the same in all directions, the material is said to be isotropic. For many polycrystalline materials the grain orientations are random before any working (deformation) of the material is done. Therefore, even if the individual grains are anisotropic, the property differences tend to average out and, overall, the material is isotropic. When a material is formed, the grains are usually distorted and elongated in one or more directions which makes the material anisotropic. Material forming will be discussed later but let’s continue discussing crystalline structure at the atomic level.