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Materials/Processes

Selection of Materials
Specific Metals
  Metal Ores
  Iron and Steel
  Decarburization
  Aluminum/Aluminum Alloys
  Nickel and Nickel Alloys
  Titanium and Titanium Alloys


General Manufacturing Processes

Metallic Components
Ceramic and Glass Components
Polymers/Plastic Components
Composites

Manufacturing Defects
Metals
Polymers
Composites

Service Induced Damage
Metals
Polymers
Composites
Material Specifications

Component Design, Performance and NDE
Strength
Durability
Fracture Mechanics
Nondestructive Evaluation

Fatigue Crack Initiation

While on the subject of dislocations, it is appropriate to briefly discuss fatigue. Fatigue is one of the primary reasons for the failure of structural components. The life of a fatigue crack has two parts, initiation and propagation. Dislocations play a major role in the fatigue crack initiation phase. It has been observed in laboratory testing that after a large number of loading cycles dislocations pile up and form structures called persistent slip bands (PSB). An example of a PSB is shown in the micrograph image to the right.

PSBs are areas that rise above (extrusion) or fall below (intrusion) the surface of the component due to movement of material along slip planes. This leaves tiny steps in the surface that serve as stress risers where fatigue cracks can initiate. A crack at the edge of a PSB is shown in the image below taken with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).