Home - Education Resources - NDT Course Material - Penetrant Testing
 

-
Introduction to Penetrant Testing

Introduction
History
Improving Detection
—Visual Acuity
—Contrast Sensitivity
—Eye's Response to Light

Principles
Steps for Liquid PI
Common Uses for PI
Pros and Cons of PI

PT Materials
Penetrant Testing Matl's
Penetrants
—Surface Energy
—Specific Gravity
—Viscosity
—Color and Fluorescence
   —Why things Fluoresce
—Dimensional Threshold
—Stability of Penetrants
—Removability
Emulsifiers
Developers

Methods & Techniques
Preparation
—Cleaning Methods
—Metal Smear
Technique Selection
Application Technique
Penetrant Removal
Selecting Developer

Quality & Process Control
Temperature
Penetrant
Dwell
Emulsifier
Wash
Drying
Developer
Lighting
System Performance Check

Other Considerations
Defect Nature
Health & Safety

References

Quizzes
-

References and Resources

Cartz, Louis, Nondestructive Testing, ASM Intl, Metals Park, OH, 1995, ISBN: 0871705176

Introduction to Capillary Testing Theory, Borovikov, A.S. (Ed.), Minsk, Nauka i Tekhnika Publishing, 1988

Liquid Penetrant Testing, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Volume 2, Tracy, Noel (Tech. Ed.), Moore, Patrick (Ed.) American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH, 1999, ISBN 1-57117-028-6

Larson, B.F., Study of the Factors Affecting the Sensitivity of Liquid Penetrant Inspections: Review of Literature Published from 1970 to 1998, FAA Technical Report Number DOT/FAA/AR-01/95, Office of Aviation Research, Washington, DC, Jan 2002 (pdf 1.0 meg)