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Introduction to Penetrant Testing

Introduction
History
Improving Detection
—Visual Acuity
—Contrast Sensitivity
—Eye's Response to Light

Principles
Steps for Liquid PI
Common Uses for PI
Pros and Cons of PI

PT Materials
Penetrant Testing Matl's
Penetrants
—Surface Energy
—Specific Gravity
—Viscosity
—Color and Fluorescence
   —Why things Fluoresce
—Dimensional Threshold
—Stability of Penetrants
—Removability
Emulsifiers
Developers

Methods & Techniques
Preparation
—Cleaning Methods
—Metal Smear
Technique Selection
Application Technique
Penetrant Removal
Selecting Developer

Quality & Process Control
Temperature
Penetrant
Dwell
Emulsifier
Wash
Drying
Developer
Lighting
System Performance Check

Other Considerations
Defect Nature
Health & Safety

References

Quizzes
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Why a Penetrant Inspection Improves the Detectability of Flaws

The advantage that a liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) offers over an unaided visual inspection is that it makes defects easier to see for the inspector. There are basically two ways that a penetrant inspection process makes flaws more easily seen. First, LPI produces a flaw indication that is much larger and easier for the eye to detect than the flaw itself. Many flaws are so small or narrow that they are undetectable by the unaided eye. Due to the physical features of the eye, there is a threshold below which objects cannot be resolved. This threshold of visual acuity is around 0.003 inch for a person with 20/20 vision.

The second way that LPI improves the detectability of a flaw is that it produces a flaw indication with a high level of contrast between the indication and the background also helping to make the indication more easily seen. When a visible dye penetrant inspection is performed, the penetrant materials are formulated using a bright red dye that provides for a high level of contrast between the white developer.  In other words, the developer serves as a high contrast background as well as a blotter to pull the trapped penetrant from the flaw.  When a fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed, the penetrant materials are formulated to glow brightly and to give off light at a wavelength that the eye is most sensitive to under dim lighting conditions.

Additional information on the human eye can be found by following the links below.

Visual Acuity
Contrast Sensitivity
Color Sensitivity