Interpretation - Welds
In addition to producing high quality radiographs,
the radiographer must also be skilled in radiographic interpretation.
Interpretation of radiographs takes place in three basic steps: (1) detection, (2) interpretation, and (3) evaluation.
All of these steps make use of the radiographer's visual acuity.
Visual acuity is the ability to resolve a spatial pattern in
an image. The ability of an individual to detect discontinuities
in radiography is also affected by the lighting condition in
the place of viewing, and the experience level for recognizing
various features in the image. The following material was developed
to help students develop an understanding of the types of defects
found in weldments and how they appear in a radiograph.
Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical
structure of a material. These interruptions may occur in the
base metal, weld material or "heat affected" zones.
Discontinuities, which do not meet the requirements of the codes
or specifications used to invoke and control an inspection, are
referred to as defects.
General Welding Discontinuities
The following discontinuities are typical of all
types of welding.
Cold lap is a condition where the weld
filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the
previous weld pass material (interpass cold lap). The arc does
not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly
molten puddle to flow into the base material without bonding.
Porosity is the result of gas entrapment
in the solidifying metal. Porosity can take many shapes on a
radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots
or specks appearing singularly, in clusters, or in rows. Sometimes,
porosity is elongated and may appear to have a tail. This is the result of gas attempting to escape while
the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole
porosity. All porosity is a void in the material and it will have
a higher radiographic density than the surrounding area.
Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated
electrodes are contaminated with moisture. The moisture turns
into a gas when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during
the welding process. Cluster porosity appear just like regular
porosity in the radiograph but the indications will be grouped
Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material
entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. In a
radiograph, dark, jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld
or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions.
Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration
(LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the
joint. It is one of the most objectionable weld discontinuities.
Lack of penetration allows a natural stress riser from which
a crack may propagate. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark
area with well-defined, straight edges that follows the land
or root face down the center of the weldment.
Incomplete fusion is a condition where
the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal.
Appearance on radiograph: usually appears as a dark line or
lines oriented in the direction of the weld seam along the weld
preparation or joining area.
Internal concavity or suck back is a condition
where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been
drawn up into the root of the weld. On a radiograph it looks
similar to a lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges
and it is often quite wide in the center of the weld image.
Internal or root undercut is an erosion
of the base metal next to the root of the weld. In the radiographic
image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centerline
of the weldment. Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP
because it does not follow a ground edge.
External or crown undercut is an erosion
of the base metal next to the crown of the weld. In the radiograph,
it appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of
the weld area.
Offset or mismatch are terms associated
with a condition where two pieces being welded together are
not properly aligned. The radiographic image shows a noticeable difference in density between the two pieces. The difference
in density is caused by the difference in material thickness.
The dark, straight line is caused by the failure of the weld metal
to fuse with the land area.
Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area
of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less
than the thickness of the base material. It is very easy to
determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement,
because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy
will be higher (darker) than the image density of the surrounding
Excess weld reinforcement is an area of
a weld that has weld metal added in excess of that specified
by engineering drawings and codes. The appearance on a radiograph
is a localized, lighter area in the weld. A visual inspection
will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess
of that specified by the engineering requirements.
Cracks can be detected in a radiograph
only when they are propagating in a direction that produces
a change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. Cracks
will appear as jagged and often very faint irregular lines.
Cracks can sometimes appear as "tails" on inclusions
Discontinuities in TIG welds
The following discontinuities are unique to
the TIG welding process. These discontinuities occur in most
metals welded by the process, including aluminum and stainless
steels. The TIG method of welding produces a clean homogeneous
weld which when radiographed is easily interpreted.
Tungsten inclusions. Tungsten is a brittle
and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten
inert gas welding. If improper welding procedures are used,
tungsten may be entrapped in the weld. Radiographically, tungsten
is more dense than aluminum or steel, therefore it shows up as
a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph.
Oxide inclusions are usually visible on
the surface of material being welded (especially aluminum). Oxide inclusions are less dense than the surrounding material
and, therefore, appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities
in the radiograph.
Discontinuities in Gas Metal Arc Welds (GMAW)
The following discontinuities are most commonly
found in GMAW welds.
Whiskers are short lengths of weld electrode
wire, visible on the top or bottom surface of the weld or contained
within the weld. On a radiograph they appear as light, "wire
Burn-Through results when too much heat
causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone. Often
lumps of metal sag through the weld, creating a thick globular
condition on the back of the weld. These globs of metal are
referred to as icicles. On a radiograph, burn-through appears
as dark spots, which are often surrounded by light globular